Trade and immigration issues raise many political and legislative issues, most of which have no direct influence on others,44 but there are political issues in immigration and trade. This report concludes with three common political questions and summaries of competing responses. This issue has become one of the most controversial issues at this stage of the services negotiations, in which the World Trade Organization (WTO) is now participating in the Doha Development Agenda.”s Doha Agenda. Several developing countries have criticized visa restrictions on temporary workers entering the United States, particularly workers who are not directly linked to U.S.-based companies, and have also called for greater transparency in U.S. immigration policy for temporary entry of staff. The U.S. economy asserts that the U.S. needs to be more flexible in its offerings, 48 In a May 2005 letter to the new USTR Rob Portman, then chairman and rank-and-see member of the House Judiciary Committee (representing F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr. and Representative John Conyers) and representing John Conyers, asked USTR to “not negotiate immigration…. The provisions of bilateral or multilateral trade agreements that require changes in U.S.
law. 49 On the other hand, if increased migration leads to a decline in trade, they are considered substitutes. For example, if more trade creates new employment opportunities and improves welfare outcomes in migrants` countries of origin, fewer people may be inclined to leave the country. However, these theoretical observations provide only a complete description of the real impact of trade policy. In fact, some of the fundamental premises of the neoclassical model (the “perfect market”) are not really valid in reality, which distorts the results. One example is the idea that adjustment processes induced by increased competition are immediate and free (excluding transaction costs). For example, a person who finds himself unemployed immediately finds a new job. Another hypothesis is perfect market transparency: all economic operators are always fully informed of all relevant factors (prices, costs, new jobs). In reality, adaptation processes involve considerable social and economic costs. The use of trade agreements to create legal migration opportunities in the service sector reduces the incentive for irregular migration. This issue is of particular importance to the EU as it faces the emerging problem of labour shortages in the ageing societies of its Member States. It is also possible that the EU will include the issue of migration in future trade agreements, with a conditionality that links migration restrictions to trade incentives.
The migration of rehabilitation controls indicates that “trade policy should take into account the policy framework for the return and readmission of irregular migrants”78, without elaborating. After Brexit, EU migrants will be treated in the same way as migrants from other parts of the world after Brexit, as shown by a new British immigration strategy, described by Prime Minister Theresa May. But she admitted that any free trade deal between Britain and the EU after Brexit could include specific provisions on people`s mobility.